New York Yankees
New York Yankees is definitely one of the most famous baseball teams to date. And, despite all the difficulties that the team members and their coaches had to go through, the Yankees achieved incredible success, which certainly deserves respect. They became the team that made a huge contribution to the history of baseball as a sport.
As for the history of baseball, historians still do not know the exact date of its occurrence. Even in the old records from 1340, you can find illustrations on which you can see priests allegedly playing something similar to modern baseball. Other sources say that many years ago the French played games that are somewhat similar to baseball. For example, such games were “thèque”, “la balle au bâton” and “la balle empoisonnée”. But the most common states that baseball comes from the English lapta, which the people of old North America changed a little and improved. Improved English lapta for a long time was one of the most popular games, especially among residents of the UK and Ireland.
Already at the beginning of the 19th century, newspapers in America often wrote about games with titles like “Base-Ball” (which literally meant the main ball), “Base”, “Goalball” and “Town Ball”. It is also worth noting that around 1830 a book was published under the title The Boy’s Own Book, in which you could also find the first mentions of a game similar to baseball.
Calling the name of the person who came up with the rules of this game is also quite difficult, since they have changed repeatedly. For a long time, the author of the modern rules of baseball was considered to be Abner Doubleday from the small town of Cooperstown, which is located in the center of Otsego County, New York. But after some time it was possible to establish that such a person never existed in this city, so the question of who came up with a set of rules for the game again became relevant. Later it became known that in 1845 Alexander Cartwright, who lives in New York, developed a set of baseball rules, which was later approved and began to be used by all existing baseball clubs in the city. A year later, according to these rules, the first baseball game was held in New York.
For a long time, baseball was considered just entertainment; A game that you can play with your friends on a whim. Then this game became something like a no-prize competition. But it took almost twenty years, and many began to think about how to make the game more interesting and exciting, how to add incentives to the game. So, in the summer of 1869 in Cincinnati was held the first game with a cash reward. The initiators were members of the team “Atlanta Braves” (then it was called “Red Stockings”), which began to pay money to participants of matches. After that, the development of baseball as a competitive sport began to grow rapidly, and a couple of years later the first professional baseball league in the world was created in the United States. This was the latest impetus for active growth in the popularity of baseball competitions throughout the United States, so by the twentieth century, at least one professional baseball team could be found in almost every city on the coast of the United States.
It’s hard to find a more popular sport in the United States than baseball (according to the US Census Bureau, more than 11 million Americans play baseball). This game is played in teams with the help of a ball and a special baseball bat (as in English cricket or Russian lapta). The goal of the game is to score as many points as possible, which are called races in this game. Points are calculated against the attacking team after the player returns to the so-called “house”, which in the terminology of baseball is called “home plate”, because the player constantly visits three “bases”: the corners of the playing area. Each team consists of nine people and in each “part” of the game (inning) they constantly play in attack and defense. The game lasts for nine innings and with a tied result, until the next inning is completed with the advantage of one of the teams.
The right to own the ball in the game belongs to the team that takes a defensive position, the “pitcher” (literally one who throws the ball) throws it to the “catcher” (literally the one who catches the ball). The other player (batter) tries to hit the ball, ideally, outside the playing field (when the ball leaves the playing field, the referee considers the home run). If the kicker hits the ball in the field, he runs to the first base (single) and with a very successful kick to the second (double), third (triple) or immediately to the house (home run). The player who moved to the base is called the “runner”, and the next attack player arrives at the batter’s place.
The defending team has nine players on the field: three players on the bases (called base ones), with the exception of the pitcher and receiver, three “field players” in areas of the field that are far from home and shortstop between second and third bases. The defense seeks to “neutralize” the attack, making it “external”. There are several ways to do this: catch the ball hit by the batter before it falls to the ground (the judge considers the flight out); transfer the ball, which fell to the ground, to the player defending the first (second, third) base, before the ground approaches it; three shots of the pitcher in the “attack zone”, limited by the width of the base and height, the distance from the batter’s knees to the middle of his chest (strike out), etc. After receiving the “out”, the attacking player leaves the field, after three strikeouts the “half” ends and teams change roles.
Of course, this is a very simplified presentation of the basic concepts of the game, but although the rules of baseball at first glance seem very confusing, they are not difficult to understand.
One of the main ones, as is now known, is considered to be the World Baseball Championship, which has been held since 1938. At first, only men participated in this sport. Surely, all this is only official, but in fact, women are also actively interested in baseball and played no worse. But, unfortunately, women began to be perceived as baseball players much later, so they began to hold a similar baseball championship for women only 60 years later, starting in 2004.
Of course, it was not without the favorable intervention of the International Olympic Committee, which, finally, noticing such a promising sport, added baseball to the list of the Summer Olympic Games in the fall of 1986. By the way, not only baseball was added, but also its version – softball.
However, as more and more new sports appeared every year, baseball gradually began to lose its former popularity, so just a couple of years ago, in 2005, the International Olympic Committee decided to remove baseball from the list. And, despite the fact that, according to the official version, it is commonly believed that the problem is only in the low popularity of the game, but there is also information that the matter was in disagreement between the representatives of the committee and the US Baseball League. The conflict was that the Baseball League refused to change the dates of the competition in order to adjust to the time of the Olympic Games. Anyway, the conflict has already been settled, so already in 2020 baseball fans will again be able to watch their favorite game in the list of the Olympic Games.
New York Yankees
Today it is difficult to find a person who has not heard of the New York Yankees. This professional baseball club was founded in 1900, but its history is not as simple as it might seem at first glance. It all started just at the end of 1900, when Western League President Ben Johnson had to reorganize the league. He added several teams from cities in the east. All these teams together formed the American League. It was originally planned to place this club somewhere on the territory of New York, but this was hampered by another team, which had enough powerful links to prevent the new team from accommodating on their territory. Therefore, instead of New York, the new league was located in Baltimore, Maryland. This was the reason that the new league was not able to participate in the competitions of 1900, since this city was not included in the list of participants.
A little later, the team received the name “Orioles” and the next year began to take part in competitions under the direction of John McGraw. John tried to conduct a dual policy: throughout the game season in 1902, he worked on two “fronts”. McGraw not only struggled with Johnson, the founder of the league, but also helped and advised the opponent’s team, the Giants, while trying not to lose confidence in the Orioles team. It all ended with the fact that McGraw’s plans were revealed, and the American League had to take control of the situation and the leadership of the team. In the end, both teams came to the decision that the time had come to hold a “peace conference” in order to resolve all disagreements and understand how to coexist further. During the negotiations, Johnson demanded that his team be allowed to stay in New York. Despite the fact that the Giants owner was categorically against it, all the team members agreed to accept the Johnson team to “their” city. Therefore, John T. Brush has no other choice but to allow the Johnson team to stay in New York. The new owners of Orioles almost immediately began to build a new stadium, and the team from Baltimore moved to New York.
This stadium was called Hilltop Park, which is also called “American League Park”. Subsequently, the team began to call itself “Highlanders of New York”, so there were two prerequisites: the first is the location of the stadium, which is located in one of the highest points of Manhattan, and the second reason is associated with the name of the club president. In Britain, there was a division of Gordon Highlanders, whose name corresponded to the name of Joseph. But members of the American League began to call the “New Yorkers” team, and shortly thereafter one of the editors of the sports magazine proposed a simpler and more convenient name: “New York Yankees”.
Since 1904, the team actively participated in competitions. It was in 1904 that one of the players of New York Yankees, namely the pitcher Jack Chesbro, set a record for victories in one season, which no one could beat to this day.
After a little more than five years, the two warring teams had to cross again. The Giants Playground was burned to the ground, so during its reconstruction, the New York Highlanders had to let opponents into Hilltop Park. Because of the heated relations, New York Highlanders decided to move to the rebuilt Polo Grounds, and since his position was much lower than Hilltop Park, the name of the New York Highlanders team completely lost its meaning, therefore, the new name New York Yankees has become attached to the team completely.
To date, Yankees has a huge history of victories, it is worth remembering the enchanting victory in the 2009 World Series. Despite all the difficulties in the past, this team has achieved tremendous success and popularity among baseball fans and other sport admirers. Virtually every player at New York Highlanders, as well as their coaches today, can be found in the Baseball Hall of Fame, which is certainly an excellent indicator of the level of professionalism of this team.